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Expert introduction

Whistling in the sky with color pen -- interview with Chen Yingming, a famous Chinese aeronautical painter

He has drawn nearly a thousand aviation history paintings, involving the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union, France, Japan, Germany and other different types of aircraft in various periods;

In his large-scale book "One Hundred Years of Chinese Aircraft", he used the brush to restore many of the air scenes that had been annihilated by time;

He researched and restored more than 20 kinds of aircraft in the Republic of China, and made three representative 1:1 real large scale aircraft models; He was invited to his hometown Guangzhou to conduct historical research for the "Guangdong Aviation Museum" under construction.

"The so-called aviation painting is a completely accurate and scientific drawing of the history, structure and anatomy of an aircraft." Mr. Chen Yingming, 83, spoke to us in Cantonese.

 

Image above: In Guangzhou, we visited Chinese aerial painter Chen Yingming

Mankind's first aerial painting was painted by the outstanding Italian painter and scientist Leonardo Da Vinci, in true proportions and details, including small screws. For this reason, there are ship paintings, car paintings and so on. But in China, there is almost nothing. "You see," Mr. Chen Yingming said, "on the commemorative stamp issued by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications for the 70th anniversary of the founding of the Army, a J-8II is drawn, and from its full-moving horizontal tail and rear flap large Angle of attack are lowered, you can see that the aircraft is staying on the ground." However, the amateur designer painted it in a high-altitude state, deleted the original landing gear, but left the landing gear storage compartment and the open cover of the main wheel..."

Born in Xiqiao, Nanhai, Guangdong Province, Chen Ying Ming was born in Hanoi, Vietnam, and his grandfather was a Vietnamese overseas Chinese. In 1932, he returned to Guangzhou Xiguan to study in Peizheng Primary School, the teacher let everyone know how to make a model airplane. He knew that during the First World War, French pilots shot down five German aircraft, and after they got on the aviation painting, they became the internationally recognized "air combat heroes" (that is, ace pilots) who shot down five aircraft as the baseline. So, at the age of 10, he made model airplanes. After the Japanese invaders came, his family moved from Hong Kong to South Hanoi. When Japan surrenders, China will take them to Vietnam to confiscate Japanese planes and fly them back to China. He later paid a visit to the famous painter Xu Dongbai (after liberation, Xu returned to Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts as a professor), combined with the understanding of aircraft, began to create aviation paintings.

There is no aviation painting profession in the world, which can paint the original aircraft painting, nationality, army logo, background, characters, locations, etc., before it is considered aviation painting art. After the war of resistance, Chen Yingming served as a civilian in the Kuomintang Air Force, and once, the deputy commander-in-chief of the Air Force Wang Shuming saw several aviation paintings and several fighter models on the wall in the reception room of the Tianhe Airport, and he was very surprised that the shiny fighter planes seemed to roar out with thunder. When it became known that it was drawn by a young man from the 275th Supply Squadron, he was ordered to be promoted to lieutenant and transferred to the Taiwan Air Force Academy. However, Chen Yingming returned to Hong Kong.

After the victory of the liberation War, Chen Yingming returned to Guangzhou with the "Two navigation" uprising personnel. On August 1, 1950, the new China Civil Aviation officially took off from Guangzhou Baiyun Airport for the first time. In order to celebrate the first flight, Zhu Guang, vice mayor of Guangzhou, held a banquet on behalf of Mayor Ye Jianying in the evening at the Guangdong Welcome Hotel to entertain the "Two flights" uprising personnel. Chen Yingming and 40 couples shook hands with Zhu Guang, and that kind of warmth has been hot in the heart.

In 1953, as a third-level technician, he participated in the development of New China's first model aircraft engine and the production of model test flights. In 1956, he was transferred to Chengdu to participate in the construction of an aircraft factory. After 1958, he was a senior engineer of aircraft model design.

Many of the world's aircraft designers, such as the Soviet Union's Yakovlev, Sukhoi, the British Spitfire designer Mitchell, the United States Kelly Johnson, etc., are enthusiasts of aircraft models. After the designers initially decide the aerodynamic shape of the aircraft and the design drawing of the three sides of the aircraft (front, side, and tilt), the model designer must make the whole or part of the scale model (the maximum ratio is 1:1) with metal or wood, and carry out several wind tunnel tests to check the correct effect of the design requirements. It is not easy to be an aerial painter in China, because at a time when even a cannon must be covered with a few pieces of canvas, the new American aircraft can be visited and bought, and only the manufacturing process and main onboard equipment are kept secret...

Chen Yingming has painted nearly 1000 aviation history paintings, involving different types of aircraft in various periods of the United States, Britain, Soviet Union, France, Japan, Germany, etc. In order to find scientific information, he collected more than 20 domestic and foreign periodicals, books, atlas, and aviation paintings of various companies. In the large-scale book "100 Years of Chinese Aircraft," he used brushes to restore many aerial scenes that had been lost in time. For example, on August 31, 1937, seven Japanese Mitsubishi 96 bombers came to bomb the Tianhe and Baiyun airports in Guangzhou, and the Chinese Air Force immediately confronted them with Hawk-III. The pilot, also a Cantonese, chased down two Japanese planes to Humen, which was the first air battle in Guangzhou during the Anti-Japanese War. Chen Yingming painted it down, so that future generations can hear the deafening sound of gunfire in the blue sky...

At the China Aviation Museum in Beijing, Chen Yingming painted a 600-meter-long giant manuscript of the history of aviation development (later not formally painted due to insufficient conditions). From 1982 to 1986, when working in the Aviation History Office of the former Ministry of Aviation Industry, he researched and restored more than 20 kinds of three-sided maps of aircraft in the Republic of China. In Beijing Aviation Museum, he researched, presided over and produced three representative 1:1 real large scale aircraft models. For example, the "Feng Ru -2" aircraft made by Feng Ru, the "first Chinese pilot," is known as the "nominal aircraft." But later, when the audience saw the two-winged flyer, a little more realistic, they felt the vision and courage of Master Feng Ru of Enping. In 1923, when Sun Yat-sen presided over the Grand Marshal's Palace, the first aircraft in Guangdong made by the Aviation Administration in Guangzhou - "Lesshiwen -1" (" Lesshiwen "is the English name used by Soong Qingling when he studied in the United States) was also restored. Based on the diameter of the landing gear wheel and propeller data, Chen Yingming restored the three views and made them. In recent years, the son of an old American pilot Albert, using the materials his father brought back from China, such as the memories of witnessing the manufacture of the aircraft, the experience of flying the aircraft, and the historical photos of the naming ceremony, published a detailed information and data in the American Aviation magazine. The magazine's four views differ only 5 percent from the three views Chen Yingming designed when the data were not available. Later, the production materials were brought back to Taiwan by Sun Yat-sen's granddaughter Sun Huifen, which aroused the praise of Mr. Tian Zhongxiu, a Taiwanese aircraft model maker: "After 60 years from that year, with limited information, I really admire this ability to draw such a complete design!" The third is the production of "Lenin" aircraft, when the Kuomintang plane landed in the Red Army base, becoming the first military aircraft of the Red Army. It was buried by the Red Army before the Long March, and when it was dug up later, the word "Lenin" on the plane was based on it. All these fill the gap in China's aviation history.

Over the years, Chen has published such books as "Real Airplane Model" and "Color Aviation Atlas", and also published several books in Taiwan such as "Aircraft of the Chinese Air Force during the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression". In 1995, dozens of Chen Yingming's works were highly appreciated by an American friend in the history exhibition held in Guangzhou Aviation Expo, and he twice asked to buy all of them, but Chen Lao did not want to give up love, but two days before closing the museum, the "Flying Tigers' First Battle in Kunming" was stolen.

This time, I was invited to my hometown Guangzhou to conduct historical research for the "Guangdong Aviation Museum" under preparation. What makes him most anxious is that the aviation consciousness of the people has not been firmly established. Where once the British ran the globe with their battleships, America now holds the world under the wings of its giant aircraft; How can the Chinese people not quickly establish the idea of rejuvenating the country by aviation? "Science and technology have no class and national boundaries. Many years ago, newspapers criticized aviation model shops for selling models of Japanese "Zero" fighter jets and "Yamato" warships, arguing that it was promoting Japanese militarism, which is extremely wrong and ultra-left thinking. Think about it, if there is a problem with the sale of the "Zero" fighter model, then the so-called United Nations military aircraft used by the US Army in the Korean War, such as B-29, F-80, F-51, etc., will not be mentioned? If so, the restored Japanese aircraft in the military museum should also be put away. According to this reasoning, the imperial Palace and the Summer Palace, which serve the emperor, should also close their doors. At that time, Chinese teenagers can only be the company of Transformers, and what talk of science and technology to rejuvenate the country?" Chen Yingming was deeply worried.

Above: Chen Yingming's aircraft painting, one of the postal postcards of 90 Years of Chinese Aviation, the unmanned reconnaissance plane Changhong 1 (1980), is launched from the underwing hanger of a large bomber.

Above: Chen Yingming's aerial combat diagram for the 60th anniversary of the victory of the Guangdong Aviation Federation

On August 14, 1937, the second day after the Battle of Songhu began, the Japanese naval aviation force 18 96 land attacked our Hangzhou Jianqiao Airport, just as our Air Force fourth Group had just transferred from Zhoujiakou Airport. Captain Gao Zhihang flew the Hawk III IV-1 aircraft to scramble without refueling, led 27 fighters to intercept, shot down three Japanese aircraft in service, and one forced landing in the return flight. We have no air losses. It was the first air contest between the two armies in the war of Resistance. The victory of this battle has greatly encouraged the fighting spirit of the Chinese army and people. Later, the National government designated 8-14 as Air Force Day. Gao was later promoted to commander of the Chinese Air Force's expulsion aircraft. On 22 November 1937, he was killed in the Japanese attack on Zhoujiakou Airport. Shot down 5 enemy planes during his lifetime. It is listed as the first of the "Four Heavenly Kings" of the Chinese Air Force. The fourth team was named the "Chi-hang Brigade", the brigade soldiers went forward and forward, the war of resistance for 8 years, there have been four battalion leaders martyred on the job

On August 15, 1937, Huang Xinrui shot down a Type 96 bomber in a Boeing 281 fighter

On August 19, 1937, seven Northrop 2EC light bombers of the 11th Squadron of the Second Group bombed the enemy ships off the sea of Sheshan, and Shen Chonghai's 904 aircraft broke down. He and his rear-facing shooter Chen Xichun gave up the opportunity to escape and took the plane to the enemy ship, and died heroically

On September 21, 1937, Chen Qiguang, commander of the 28th Squadron, shot down the Japanese "King of Expulsion" Hirosa Mitsu in a Hawker II fighter at Taiyuan. Chen was also wounded in the battle, please note the bullet hole in the machine number.

On 13 October 1937, Liu Xuigang, commander of the 24th Squadron of the 5th Battalion, shot down one of the 96 warships over Nanjing. By 12 October 1937, Liu had shot down 11 enemy aircraft (and one was not confirmed), and was listed as one of the "Four Heavenly Kings". On October 26, 1937, the 24th Squadron was ordered to cover the 129,115th Division of the Eighth Route Army to assist Niangziguan and transferred to Shanxi. Due to the bad weather, no navigation equipment, Liu Xuigang unfortunately crashed and died, at the age of 25

During the Air Battle of Nanchang on 7 January 1938, Lieutenant Rodeh shot down the 96 ship Battle piloted by Captain Ryohei Chaoda, commander of the Japanese 12th Air Force

On February 23, 1938, 28 SB-2 bombers of the Soviet Volunteer Air Force took off from Hankou and attacked Taipei Songshan Airport, destroying 12 enemy aircraft, burning up three years of aviation fuel reserves, and paralysing Songshan Airport for a month

On April 13, 1938, Squadrons 28 and 29 of the Air Force, led by Huang Xinrui and Lei Yanjun, took off from Guangzhou Tianhe Airport with British-made "fighter" fighters to intercept the Japanese Nakajima Type 95 fighters

On April 29, 1938, Chen Huaimin, a 21-year-old pilot of the 23rd Squadron of the 4th Battalion, was shot down after shooting down an enemy aircraft, and he resolutely drove the plane into a Japanese ship 96 battle and died with it.

On May 19, 1938, after months of careful preparation, the Chinese Air Force "surprised" Japan with two long-range Martin 139WC bombers carrying leaflets (considering the limited deterrent effect of a small number of bombs). Tens of thousands of leaflets were dropped through Kyushu, Nagasaki, Fukuoka and other places. The two aircraft completely rely on radio navigation for night flight, after up to eight hours of flight, the two aircraft arrived in Yushan, Jiangxi Province at 8:30 on the 20th, and returned to Wuhan at 11:30. In the condition of such simple equipment and such inferior numbers, our air force athletes went deep into the enemy camp, showing China's determination to resist the war, and retreated completely. That's admirable

At 23:30 on the 19th, the leader Xu Huansheng sent the following message after taking off: The post respectfully led all the soldiers to salute the Chairman of the Supreme Leader and the officers. To show the honor of participating in this work, and vow to sacrifice the determination to do the utmost to complete this extraordinary mission...

The 17th Squadron destroyed Fiat BR20 bombers of the Japanese 12th Squadron outside Lanzhou, and on 23 February 1939, the Chinese Air Force shot down 18 Japanese bombers. It was the best achievement made during the war of Resistance. Lanzhou was the geometric center of China and an important distribution center of Soviet aid, and the battle with the Japanese army over Lanzhou began in 1937, entered a fever pitch in 39, and gradually stopped in 41

In December 1939, Zhang Chen Ruitian, deputy Battalion of the Third Battalion (an American Chinese who returned to serve the country in the 1930s), piloted a fighter jet and his comrades shot down a Type 97 reconnaissance plane (the bottom of the above two pictures). Three fighter jets covering SB-2 bombers bombed Kunlun Pass and encountered 10 96 fighters, the inferior Chinese Air Force circled for an hour, and shot down two enemy planes, and one unidentified fighter, the bombers completed the set mission, but the remaining three fighter fighters were all lost in the battle. Wei Yiqing sacrifice, Chen Xinye injured parachuting. Chen Shui-tian parachuted, but was severely burned, and retired from combat flying (8.5 aircraft), after Liuzhou, Hong Kong (after the fall of the Dongjiang column to return under the cover of death), Guilin and other places (during which his wife was killed in a bombing to protect him), and then went to the United States plastic surgery, until 1944 returned to China, many times over the hump route, delivering supplies.

On September 13, 1940, in the air battle of Bishan, the Japanese army put the new Zero fighter into the battlefield, our aircraft performance was completely at the disadvantage, 11 were shot down, 13 were forced to land, a total of 24 were lost, 8 were wounded, 10 were sacrificed... Major Chen Qiguang fought Shanxi in 1937 with only five fighters, and did not show weakness. After the battle, he was not only full of tears: "The difference in aircraft performance is too great, there is no chance to fight back!"

In 1940, the Chinese Air Force intercepted the Japanese bombing of Chongqing Mitsubishi 97 heavy explosion, the figure can be seen at least three types of aircraft participated in the battle, but the number of each is very small, when the Chinese air Force was in the most difficult period, foreign trade channels were cut off, unable to supplement aircraft, pilot casualties are huge, in the face of the new zero fighter can not cope...

On March 14, 1941, in the air battle of Chengdu, the Chinese Air Force's Type 153 fighter was still unable to resist the Japanese Zero fighter, and our army was shot down in the air battle, including a total of 16 forced landing losses, the picture shows 28 Squadron